The simulation platform SHINE

Introduction to SHINE

The simulation platform for heterogeneous interworking networks (SHINE) has been developed within several projects to investigate single wireless communication networks in realistic scenarios as well as interoperating networks. Its development started more than 10 years ago, ant it still continues to fulfill the needs of the research group [A][B][C][D].

SHINE is an event driven dynamic simulator written in C++, which allows to jointly take into account all aspects of the wireless networks related to the various layers of the protocol stack. SHINE has been designed to simulate heterogeneous wireless networks, according to a client-server structure; it is constituted by one server simulator (upper layers simulator, ULS) and one or more client simulators (lower layers simulators, LLSs), communicating, using primitives, through sockets [A]. The ULS is independent from the simulated technology; it takes care of all information related to users mobility and of the end-to-end aspects of each connection, such as the generation of the application level traffic and the transport protocols (TCP, UDP, etc.) dynamics. Each LLS is instead specific for the considered access technology; it manages all aspects related to the specific aspects, hence mostly related to the link and physical layers.

SHINE has been used both for the investigation of various protocols in specific technologies and for the design of efficient multi radio resource management (MRRM) strategies. It enables the investigation of the performance in scenarios (mobility, traffic, topology) given as input as well as the evaluation of several metrics and parameters affecting the QoS at different layers, thus allowing the assessment of proper statistics. 

The timeline describing the development of SHINE follows (example references are also reported).

  • 2003-today: implementation of the ULS [A];
  • 2004-2005: implementation of the UMTS TD-SCDMA LLS (e.g., [E]);
  • 2004-2007: implementation of the IEEE 802.11a/g/e LLS (e.g., [F]);
  • 2006-2007: implementation of the MC-CDMA LLS (e.g., [G]);
  • 2006-2009: implementation of the WiMax IEEE 802.16e LLS (e.g., [J]);
  • 2006-2010: implementation of the UMTS-FDD LLS, with attention to RACH (e.g., [L]) and MBMS (e.g., [I]);
  • 2010-2012: use of VISSIM for a realistic simulation of vehicular mobility [B]; 
  • 2010-today: implementation of the vehicular LLS with IEEE 802.11p (e.g., [M][N][Q]), an OFDMA based protocol (OBV) (e.g., [P]), and visible light communications (e.g., [O][R]). 

Heterogeneous networks example references are [H][K].

Download area

Although the simulator is not open source, the executable and settings are available for download to repeat the simulations shown in the following articles.

A. Bazzi, A. Zanella, "Position Based Routing in Crowd Sensing Vehicular Networks", Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks (details in the pubs list). Find the simulator and settings for the shown results here.

A. Bazzi, B. M. Masini, A. Zanella, A. Calisti, "Visible Light Communications as a Complementary Technology for the Internet of Vehicles", Elsevier Computer Communications (details in the pubs list). Find the simulator and settings for the shown results here.


Most of our works on vehicular scenarios are based on three realistic traffic traces created using the traffic simulator VISSIM. Two of them are obtained in the city scenario of Bologna, covering a region of 1.6 x 1.8 km2, with either fluent traffic (Bologna A, with 455 vehicles on average) or congested traffic (Bologna B, with 670 vehicles on average). The third scenario (interurban, with 1995 vehicles on average) is a 16 km highway segment, with 3 lanes per direction and busy traffic.

The traffic traces are available for download hereafter, where each line includes four numbers: the time instant (in seconds), the vehicle ID, the position on the X axis (in meters), and the position on the Y axis (in meters).

Download the Bologna A traffic trace here (fluent traffic).

Download the Bologna B traffic trace here (congested traffic).

Download the Interurban traffic trace here .

Feel free to download and use the traffic traces, citing for example [R] or [N].

Main references

Design principles

[A] A. Bazzi, G. Pasolini, C. Gambetti, “SHINE: Simulation platform for Heterogeneous Interworking Networks”, IEEE ICC 2006, Istanbul (Turkey), 11-15 June 2006. DOI: 10.1109/ICC.2006.255543.

[B] A. Bazzi, G. Pasolini, “On the accuracy of physical layer modelling within wireless network simulators”, (Elsevier Journal on) Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, Volume 22, March 2012, PP 47-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.simpat.2011.11.004.

[C] L. Zuliani, A. Zanella, A. Marazzi, R. Moretti, E. Agrati, R. Verdone, O. Andrisano,  “A Simulation Tool for Performance Assessment of Realistic Mobile Radio Networks”, IEEE PIMRC 2004, Barcelona (Spain).

[D] A. Toppan, A. Bazzi, B. M. Masini, P. Toppan, O. Andrisano, “Architecture of a Simulation Platform for the Smart Navigation Service Investigation”, First International Workshop on Vehicular COmmunications and Networking (VECON 2010), IEEE WiMob 2010, Niagara Falls, Canada, 11-13 October 2010. DOI: 10.1109/WIMOB.2010.5645014.

Selected papers presenting results from SHINE

[R] A. Bazzi, B. M. Masini, A. Zanella, A. Calisti, "Visible Light Communications as a Complementary Technology for the Internet of Vehicles", Elsevier Computer Communications, Special issue on Multi-radio, Multi-technology, Multi-system Vehicular Communications, DOI:10.1016/j.comcom.2016.07.004. 

[Q] A. Bazzi, A. Zanella, "Position Based Routing in Crowd Sensing Vehicular Networks", Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks, DOI:10.1016/j.adhoc.2015.06.005. 

[P] A. Bazzi, A. Zanella, B. M. Masini, "An OFDMA Based MAC Protocol for Next Generation VANETs", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol.64, No.9, October 2015, PP.4088-4100, DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2014.2361392. 

[O] A. Bazzi, B. M. Masini, A. Zanella, A. Calisti, "Visible Light Communications in Vehicular Networks for Cellular Offloading", presented at the IEEE ICC 2015, First Workshop on Visible Light Communications and Networking (VLCN), London (England), June 2015.

[N] A. Bazzi, B. M. Masini, A. Zanella, G. Pasolini, "IEEE 802.11p for Cellular Offloading in Vehicular Sensor Networks", Computer Communications, Volume 60, 1 April 2015, Pages 97-108, DOI: 10.1016/j.comcom.2015.01.012.

[M] A. Bazzi, B. M. Masini, A. Zanella, C. De Castro, C. Raffaelli, O. Andrisano, "Cellular Aided  Vehicular Named Data Networking", presented at IEEE ICCVE 2014, Vienna, Austria, November 2014.

[L] A. Bazzi, B. M. Masini, O. Andrisano, “On the Frequent Acquisition of Small Data through RACH in UMTS for ITS Applications”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol.60, No.7, September 2011, PP.2914-2926. DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2011.2160211

[K] A. Bazzi, “WLAN hot spots to increase UMTS capacity”, IEEE PIMRC 2010, Istanbul (Turkey), 26-30 September 2010. DOI: 10.1109/PIMRC.2010.5671741.

[J] A. Bazzi, G. Leonardi, G. Pasolini, O. Andrisano, “IEEE802.16e Simulation Issues”, IEEE Mobile WIMAX Symposium 2009, Napa Valley (California, USA), July 2009. DOI: 10.1109/MWS.2009.20.

[I] A. Bazzi, B.M. Masini, A. Conti, O. Andrisano, "Infomobility Provision through MBMS/UMTS in Realistic Scenarios", IEEE ITSC 2008, Beijing (China), October 2008. DOI: 10.1109/ITSC.2008.4732570.

[H] A. Bazzi, G. Pasolini, O. Andrisano, "Multi Radio Resource Management: Parallel Transmission for Higher Throughput?", EURASIP JASP, special issue entitled "Wireless Cooperative Networks", June 2008. DOI: 10.1155/2008/763264.

[G] B. M. Masini, G. Leonardi, A. Conti, G. Pasolini, A. Bazzi, D. Dardari, O. Andrisano, "How Equalization Techniques Affect the TCP Performance of MC-CDMA Systems in Correlated Fading Channels", EURASIP JWCN, special issue entitled "Multicarrier Systems", January 2008. DOI: 10.1155/2008/286351.

[F] A. Bazzi, M. Diolaiti, G.Pasolini, “Measurement Based Call Admission Control Strategies in Infrastructured IEEE802.11 WLANs”, IEEE Pers. Indoor Mob. Radio Comm. 2005 (PIMRC 2005), Berlin (Germany), 11 – 14 September, 2005. DOI: 10.1109/PIMRC.2005.1651808.

[E] C.Gambetti, A.Zanella, R.Verdone, O.Andrisano, “Performance of a TD- SCDMA cellular system in the presence of circuit and packet switched services”, IEEE VTC 2004 spring, Milan, May 2004.